Immunization Programmes for Primary Health Care / Universal Health Coverage

IA2030 Immunization for PHC: Framework for Action

Technical Resources and Case Studies


Effective, efficient and resilient immunization services are accessible to all people as an essential part of primary health care and thereby contribute to universal health coverage.


Reinforce and sustain strong leadership, management and coordination of immunization programmes at all levels.

Ensure the availability of an adequate, effective, sustainable health workforce.

Build and strengthen comprehensive vaccine-preventable disease surveillance as a component of the national public health surveillance system, supported by strong, reliable laboratory networks.

Secure high-quality supply chains for vaccines and related commodities and effective vaccine management, within the primary health care supply system.

Strengthen immunization information within a robust health information system, and promote use of high-quality, “fit-for-purpose” data for action at all levels.

Establish and maintain a well-functioning vaccine safety system involving all stakeholders.

Key areas of focus:

Immunization in primary health care: Ensure that sustainable immunization programmes are an integral part of the national primary health care strategies and operations, and of national strategies for universal health coverage.

Leadership, governance and management: Create an environment for effective coordination, financial management and performance monitoring at every level of the immunization programme.

Health workforce: Ensure the availability and appropriate distribution of health workers who are motivated, skilled, knowledgeable and appropriately resourced to plan, manage, implement and monitor the performance of immunization programmes at all levels and locations, as part of primary health care.  

Supply chain and logistics: Strengthen supply chains to ensure that high-quality vaccines are always available in the right quantity and form at the right time, in the right place and stored and distributed under the right conditions. Promote integration with other supply chains for more effective delivery of primary health care. Invest in systems and infrastructure to safely manage, treat and dispose of vaccine waste to help reduce their environmental footprint.

Vaccine-preventable disease surveillance: Increase the efficiency, responsiveness and comprehensiveness of disease surveillance (including epidemiology and laboratory capacity) in order to: encourage the introduction of vaccines; optimize immunization programmes; measure the impact of vaccines; monitor disease control, elimination and eradication; and detect, investigate and respond to outbreaks. These activities should be based on existing surveillance infrastructure, such as that for polio and measles. Health information systems: Ensure that health information systems allow health workers and decision-makers to generate and use high-quality, “fit-for-purpose” data to implement and manage immunization programmes effectively at all levels and that the data are also integrated into national health information systems.

Monitoring vaccine safety: Ensure that national immunization programmes can detect and respond to any concern about vaccine safety by continuous monitoring and coordination among relevant stakeholders.

Disease control initiatives: Ensure that strengthening of national health systems and initiatives for disease control, elimination and eradication are coordinated for mutual reinforcement. 


Application of the core principles:

People-focused: Immunization programmes will be designed and tailored to the needs and social and cultural preferences of people and communities.

Country-owned: National strategies and plans to build and sustain robust immunization programmes will strengthen health systems and primary health care in order to attain universal health coverage.

Partnership-based: Public and private partnerships will be formed, including with partners beyond the health sector, with the private sector and with civil society organizations, for coordinated strengthening of immunization programmes.

Data-guided: Data, evidence and best practice will guide strengthening of immunization programmes and improve their design and performance for universal health coverage.